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Morissa R. Freiberg Group

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Austin Hernandez
Austin Hernandez

No Place Like Home

But, things have changed over the years. Rising seas, sinking ground, and erosion of the coast have contributed to Isle de Jean Charles losing 98% of its landmass. Last year, hurricane Ida devastated the homes on the island and Brunet even had to sleep in a tent for 19 days after the storm, until a local organization donated some trailers to residents.

No Place Like Home

Because stem cells may function either homeostatically (continually replacing short-lived mature cells that are lost because of normal cell turnover) or facultatively (replacing differentiated cells only in response to injury or disease), stem cell niches must be dynamic enough to provide proper developmental and physiological cues to regulate stem cell behaviour normally and to mobilize stem cell activity in response to acute pathological conditions.

The authors would like to thank H. Mikkola, D. Laird, N. Geijsen and members of the Jones and Wagers laboratories for advice and comments on the manuscript. D.L.J. is supported by an Ellison Medical Foundation New Scholar Award, the American Federation for Aging Research, the G. Harold and Leila Y. Mathers Charitable Foundation, and a National Institutes of Health grant. A.J.W. is supported by a Burroughs Wellcome Fund Career Award, a Pilot Grant from the Paul F. Glenn Laboratories, and by the Harvard Stem Cell Institute. We apologize to those colleagues whose work has not been cited directly owing to space limitations.

The first book from renowned Hollywood-based interior designer Madeline Stuart, whose elegant decorating is predicated on timeless design, be it modernist or traditional in inspiration.Stuart is hailed as an icon in Los Angeles for her exceptional work. Architectural Digest wrote, "In a city driven by artifice and spectacle, Madeline Stuart celebrates understatement, authenticity, and elegance without affectation." The daughter of director Mel Stuart (Willy Wonka & the Chocolate Factory) and a decorator mother whose interiors were favored by actors and entertainers, Stuart grew up as a Hollywood insider. Today, her wide-ranging clientele comes from the entertainment industry as well as the world of business and finance.In No Place Like Home, Stuart herself writes eloquently about her recent work. With insight and wit, she walks the reader through her design process, from initial vision to execution. From her meticulous renovation of Cedric Gibbons's Streamline Moderne house to a newly built Montana ranch to a Mediterranean-inspired residence on the California coast, each project is informed by Stuart's keen understanding of history and craftsmanship as well as her skill with scale, proportion, and balance. These, along with her unexpected combinations of furniture and fine-art and decorative elements, result in richly layered interiors that feel authentic to their period and place, while remaining always relevant, modern, and beautiful.

The effectiveness of social distancing in response to an epidemic has been widely studied, mostly using simulation-based methods. For example, using a differential game approach, Reluga [4] argues that optimal social distancing can only reduce the chance of infection by less than 30%. In another agent-based simulation study using a small population, Kelso et al [5] showed that depending on the initial reproduction number (R0) of the epidemic and the delay from the first case until the introduction of social distancing measures, the attack rate of the disease can be reduced by between 10% and 73%. Ahmed et al [6], in a systematic review of prior research, stated that social distancing measures in workplaces caused a median reduction of 23% in the cumulative H1N1 influenza attack rate during the 2009 pandemic. In another study, Earn et al [7] showed that school closure had a considerable mitigating effect on the incidence of pandemic influenza in Alberta, Canada. Also, multiple studies have discussed the effects of social distancing on the 1918 influenza pandemic [8-10].

With respect to the COVID-19 pandemic, some recent studies have discussed the effects, challenges, and consequences of social distancing policies. Andersen [11], for instance, shows that mandatory social distancing measures have been effective in reducing visits to public locations. Additionally, Kissler et al [12] maintain that while social distancing is effective, intermittent social distancing should be continued until 2022 to fully control the epidemic. Similarly, Singh and Adhikari [13] propose that a 3-week lockdown is insufficient for controlling the disease in India and that intermittent social distancing should remain in place. In a simulation-based study, Koo et al [14] showed that under scenarios of different R0 values of COVID-19 (1.5, 2, or 2.5) and social distancing interventions (combinations of quarantine, school closure, and distance working), the number of infections may be reduced by 78.2%-99.3%. Another simulation study in Australia shows that infected case isolation is the most effective social distancing intervention among others (ie, school closure, distance working, and community contact reduction) [15]. Using an online questionnaire approach, Luo et al [16] showed that social distancing policies were effective in containing the spread of COVID-19 from Wuhan City to other areas of China. Greenstone and Nigam [17] estimated that social distancing measures in the United States would save 1.7 million lives by October 2020, and the monetary mortality benefit involved is around US $8 trillion.

Recently, Google LCC [22] and Apple Inc [23] published data sets indicating changes in mobility (compared to an average baseline before the COVID-19 pandemic) of people in different categories of places (eg, transit stations and grocery stores) and different types of activities (eg, driving and walking) based on GPS data collected from users of their navigation applications around the world. These reports confirm the effectiveness of government incentives and restrictive policies to make people stay at home by indicating considerable decreases in mobility within public places (and, in turn, increases in mobility within residential areas); however, the effectiveness of these measures in slowing the disease spread is not apparent. Particularly, many countries are still experiencing increasing numbers of confirmed COVID-19 cases despite having social distancing policies in effect for several weeks; this raises the question of to what extent, if any, the changes in mobility patterns resulting from these policies were effective in managing the disease spread. In this study, we seek to clarify this issue.

Also, as shown in Figure 3, changes of mobility in public places such as retail and recreation centers (eg, restaurants, cafes, theaters), grocery stores and pharmacies, transit hubs (eg, airports, bus stations, subways), and parks are the most important determinants of the disease transition rate. Additionally, interestingly, mobility in residential areas (the least public area) were found to be the second least relevant factor in predicting β. It should be noted that the transit mobility variable from the Apple data contained only zero values for 8/26 countries (31%). Because these values were not marked as missing in the original data set, we used them as provided. However, it is highly likely that these values were actually missing, in which case the Residential mobility variable would probably be the least important predictor of β. Overall, this justifies the government policies to enforce restrictions on travel, restaurants, and public events with the aim of controlling the spread of the disease.

Social distancing is an umbrella term that involves several different types of interventions, including case isolation, school closure, quarantine, distance working, and contact reduction in public places. Changes in mobility patterns, the effects of which were investigated in this research, can be considered as a surrogate measure of multiple social distancing interventions at the same time. The focus of other similar studies (mostly simulation-based) is on different combinations of these interventions, and different criteria were used to report the effects in those studies; therefore, comparing our results to theirs is challenging. For instance, Koo et al [14] used different combinations of R0 values and interventions and reported the mitigating effects in terms of the reduction in the number of infections (78%-99%), while Milne and Xie [15] examined several interventions sequentially and reported the mitigation role in terms of the reduction in the proportion of population infected (66%-24%). This study, meanwhile, uses the disease transmission rate β as the criterion to report the efficacy of social distancing.

From an empirical standpoint, in addition to providing supporting evidence for the effectiveness of social distancing policies, our study provides specific insights for policy makers as to which categories of locations and activities should be considered as top priorities for enforcing social distancing measures. Notably, our investigation revealed that mobility changes in highly public places such as restaurants, cafés, grocery stores, transit stations, and parks play more important roles in decreasing disease spread compared with workplaces or residential areas.

In addition to the relatively small sample size, another limitation of the present study is its reliance on highly aggregated data at the country level. Whereas this limitation is mainly due to the unavailability of granular mobility and COVID-19 data at the present time, we believe that replicating the proposed approach using a more granular mobility data set (in terms of the types of activities and categories of places) could reveal more interesting facts with regard to the effectiveness of specific social distancing policies. Therefore, we encourage future researchers to extend the present study as such data become available. 041b061a72


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